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In this months Newsletter read more about…

Welcome to our bi-monthly Newsletter

From the desk of Paul

The New Year has started with quite a bang! We started off with two submissions to ITAC and then ran into Foot & Mouth (FMD) in the
Limpopo area. But more on the submissions and FMD in the Newsletter.

… read more

New Strategic Direction

At the AGM the strategic direction for the next 5 years was discussed and a roadmap proposed around key strategic directions.

  1. To be the leading representative body for all stakeholders within the Import and Export of poultry and meat

… read more

ITAC Application on Customers Duties

SAPA brought on an application for an increase in the rate of customs duty on frozen Chicken boneless cuts under the tariff heading 0207.14.1 and bone in portions under the tariff heading 0207.14.9. Amie made a submission that was submitted to ITAC on the 11th of January 2019.

… read more

AMIE Campaign Pledge

The ITAC application threatens our most important stakeholder group – the South African consumer. In order to ensure competitive trade, access to affordable and nutritional protein, and to safeguard the public against partial information, we need to inform the South African public of the facts in the industry. The South African consumer is to be burdened with yet another cost on a very important protein consumed by our population.

… read more

New AGOA Guidelines & Implications

On Friday 1 February 2019, the International Trade Administration Commission (ITAC) published new guidelines on the AGOA rebate. Here are the changes with updates from Donald MacKay from XA International Trade Advisors.

… read more

Foot & Mouth Disease Outbreak

On 7 January 2019, an outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) was confirmed in the Vhembe district of Limpopo Province. According to a report compiled by DAFF: “The outbreak occurred in the high surveillance area of the FMD Free Zone, immediately adjacent to the
protection zone. Animals affected by the outbreak are cattle kept in rural villages with communal dip-tanks and grazing. The affected villages are in close proximity, within a 20-kilometre radius. The estimated number of cattle is 15 000, but more accurate census figures will be compiled soon.”

… read more

Durban Port Issues

Issues relating to the port of Durban seem to be a long-term project requiring many more interventions and engagements between DAFF and AMIE in order to build an optimal solution which would be in the interests of Government and Industry. Late last year DAFF again implemented a randomised sampling at the Ports. DAFF indicated that it instructed all Ports at a very late stage. The randomised sampling was implemented, but there were no proper methodologies circulated which created uncertainty and confusion with members at the Ports. Consequently, other difficulties arose. There were no protocols to determine how lab samples should be treated resulting in inconsistent testing with the provisions of 2011 SOP and 2014 SOP. We will keep our members updated on any progress.

… read more

SAPPO and AMIE Joins Forces To Grow SA Pork Exports

Exports of South African pork products have historically enjoyed only sporadic and limited efforts to develop sustainable potential
export markets. Based on the needs expressed by its members and stakeholders the South African Pork Producers’ Organisation
(SAPPO), under strategic leadership of CEO Johann Kotze and resident veterinarian Peter Evans, is in the process of evaluating
potential alternative markets for expansion internationally. Core team members representing industry include Wantie Burger and
Mike Burger (Lynca Meats) and Henry Shaw from Winelands Pork .

… read more

Meat Importers Stats for December 2018

KEY FEATURES 2017/2018

  • Total imports were 48287 mt, compared to 57395 mt last December (2017) a 12-month average of 60244 mt.
  • Total chicken imports excluding MDM, were 21589 mt compared to a December 2017 figure of 32947 mt and a 12-month average of  31999 mt.
  • Pork ribs were 1458 mt compared to a monthly average of 1709 mt.
  • Bone in chicken cuts were at 16319 mt, the lowest monthly figure of the year.
  • Mutton offal is running at 17.6 % below last year.
  • MDM is down a bit to 14218 mt, with an average of 12875 mt.

… read more

On the Radar

We are going to have an interesting year! In order to keep abreast of all the issues, we have created the radar section. Amie will keep members informed and updated as these issues roll out.

Coming our way in 2019:

  • EU Safeguard discussion – Amie’s standpoint!
  • New veterinary traffic
  • Sunset Revjew
  • Laboratory/ Rejection study

… read more

For More Information Contact Us:

Southdowns Ridge Office Park, Nellmapius Drive, Irene, Centurion
+27 (0) 12 003 3362

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In this months SAPPO Newsletter read more about…

SAPPO compartments to play a major role


“If one had any doubts that registering a pig farm as an official pig compartment was worthwhile, then the latest FMD outbreak should change producers’ minds,” says Dr Peter Evans, who heads consumer assurance at SAPPO.

… read more

Task teams to soften the blow of FMD outbreak


A steering committee and three task teams were established on 14 January 2019 to soften the blow of the recent foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in the Vhembe district.

… read more

Trade team to communicate with SA’s trading partners


Dr Pieter Vervoort, chairman of the Animal Health Forum, who represents producer organisations on DAFF’s Steering Committee, said expectations were that South Africa’s meat trading partners would close their borders after the outbreak was announced and that the OIE would temporarily put South Africa’s FMD-free status on hold.

… read more

Animal movement restricted in these areas


The technical task team appointed by the Minister of Agriculture, Forestry an Fisheries, Senzeni Zokwana, met on 16 January 2019 and shared information and advice.
The task team agreed on the following:

• To limit the area being vaccinated to make the long-term management of the disease easier, provided this does not compromise the disease control efforts.
• To increase police visibility.
• To provide feed for the affected villages in order to limit the movements and interactions of animals at grazing sites

… read more


Invitation to attend/sponsor the 2019 Ensminger Pig Symposium

Everything you want and need to know about pig feeding, through to modern welfare techniques, and gene and genomic selection comes under the spotlight at the 2019 Ensminger Pig Symposium. This co-located event to the centenary anniversary of the Pig Breeders Society of South Africa (PBS) will be hosted for the first time in Africa in Gauteng from 22 to 23 May 2019.

… read more


Its carnival time

Food Lovers Market’s annual Summer Carnival will start on Monday, 28 January and will end on Sunday 3 February. Pork will be the star of the show and it will be visible on television and in various publications.

… read more

See in-store calendar

DRUM Food Ambassador project launches

The launch of the SAPPO sponsored Drum Food Ambassador project is imminent. The February issue of the magazine DRUM, containing the announcement, will be available on 1 February. The digital version and the electronic banner communication to promote the project will be live on on 1 February. More information in your next Porcus.

New look for SA pork logo

SAPPO’s new pink SA pork logo will be launched during the DRUM campaign. More news about this new, exciting consumer-directed logo will follow in Porcus.


New on SAPPO’s info hub

Click here to visit the hub.
• Drought survey: Severe crisis conditions in rural areas
• Lessons from Namibia on curbing the spread of foot and mouth disease
• How does disease surveillance work?
• Organic agriculture is going mainstream, but not the way you think it is
• Raising pigs without antibiotics? Plan to ‘sweat the small stuff’
• Rise of ‘megafarms’: How UK agriculture is being sold off and consolidated
• Russia: ASF reduced backyard farms; large farms profit
• No deal Brexit a major concern for the BVA
• Resolution needed to secure UK animal health and welfare says NOAH, after Brexit landmark vote
• ASF Belgium: French panic as ASF virus draws nearer

Look out for our new communication platforms

SAPPO is developing a new digital tool to update producers every week on what happened the past week, not only in the pig environment but also in agriculture, South Africa and in the world in general. We are also starting with an SMS system that will inform producers instantly of urgent matters.

Spotlight on 2019

Brief agricultural outlook for 2019

Agbiz head of Agribusiness Research Wandile Sihlobo has compiled a brief agricultural outlook for 2019. He highlighted the following take-home messages.

• The South African beef sector will be under pressure in 2019 due to rising feed costs, as well as potentially slowing exports on the back of a foot-and-mouth disease outbreak.

… read more

To access the full report … Click here

Local prices declining

Average pork prices decreased by 4% since the last week of December. Compared to the same week last year, the average pork price is 5% lower. “Prices of poultry, beef and mutton also decreased. Pork prices may follow the decline in the prices of other livestock to stay competitive,” says Isabel Bröcker, who heads SAPPO’s business intelligence division.

… read more

International pig market outlook does not look rosy

Dr John Strak, editor The Whole Hog

Last year, pig market expert Dr John Strak warned that it was time to be cautious about developments in 2018. Looking back, reality has proved him right – and he’s not overly optimistic for the next 12 months.

As 2018 is only just behind us, I am bound to look back before looking forward to surmising how the global market for pigs and pork may behave in 2019.

… read more


Save the date

PIC Road Shows 2019
… read more

Topigs Norsvin’s 2019 Africa Pork Event
… read more

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  1. The work of the NAMC Transformation Review Committee – read more
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(vir onmiddellike vrystelling)

Die bek-en-klouseer uitbreking kom in ‘n tydperk waar die bedryf onder ’n landswye droogte gebuk gaan.  Voer- en mieliepryse het die hoogte ingeskiet en die koopkrag van die verbruiker is onder druk.  Dit is te midde van ‘n kuddeboufase ná die droogte van 2016.  Al dié faktore plaas baie druk op die kontantvloei en finansiële oorlewing van produsente.  Alles verteenwoordig ‘n uitdaging vir die missie van die RPO wat daarop geskoei is om vir die produsent ‘n mededingende en volhoubare rooivleisbedryf te fasiliteer.

Daar is die afgelope jaar (Januarie tot Desember 2018) 29 180 ton beesvleis uitgevoer, wat 4.02% van die plaaslike produksie is. Die markwaarde van die uitvoere beloop R1 790 918 024-73.  Gedurende dieselfde tydperk is 701.2 ton skaapvleis met ‘n markwaarde van R43 164 652-36 uitgevoer, wat 0.69% van die plaaslike produksie is.  Altesaam 16 474 815 skaapvelle ter waarde van R594 182 260-36 en 8 552 648 kg huide ter waarde van R102 445 668 is uitgevoer.

Lees volledige Nuusvrystelling hier…

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(for immediate release)

The FMD outbreak comes at a time when the industry is suffering from a country-wide drought.  Feed and maize prices have escalated and the consumer’s purchasing power is under pressure.  This is in the midst of a herd rebuilding phase after the 2016 drought. All these factors put the producers’ cash flow and financial survival under pressure. All these factors represent a challenge to the mission of the RPO which is based on the facilitation of a competitive and sustainable red meat environment for the producer.


In the previous year (January to December 2018) a total of 29 180 tonne beef has been exported, which represents 4,02% of local production. The market value of these exports amounts to R1 790 918 024-73. During the same period 701.2-tonne sheep meat has been exported at a value of R43 164 652-36, representing 0.69% of the local production. 16 474 815 sheepskins to the value of R594 182 260-36 and 8 552 648 kg of hides to the value of R102 445 668, were exported.

Read full Press Release here…

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Media Release

Immediate Release                                                    Date: 14 January 2019


The national Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) confirmed the outbreak of Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in cattle in the Vhembe District of Limpopo. Samples were collected during a disease investigation after reports of cattle with lameness were received. The positive location is just outside the FMD Control Zone in the Free Zone without vaccination. It is in the high surveillance area of the FMD Free Zone.

Click to read the full Media Release…

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Media release

Immediate Release                                                    Date: 08 January 2019


The Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) has been informed today, of positive laboratory results for Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in cattle in the Vhembe District of Limpopo. Samples were collected during a disease investigation after reports of cattle with lameness were received. The positive location is just outside the FMD Control Zone in the Free Zone without vaccination.

Click to read the full Media Release…

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This booklet is one of a series prepared by FAO’s Emergency System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases (EMPRES) (Livestock) Unit as an aid to emergency preparedness for major transboundary diseases of livestock.

Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Small Colony variant (MmmSC), is a major obstacle to cattle production in Africa, and indeed considered to be one of the great cattle plagues, following closely on the heels of rinderpest. The disease appeared to be under control in the 1970s following intensive vaccination coupled with strict movement controls. However, it made a spectacular return in the 1990s, affecting areas previously known to be free from the disease. Increased outbreaks were likewise observed in known enzootic areas. The ability to recognize the disease in the field and the capability to confirm the diagnosis of the disease in the laboratory accurately are very important components of epidemiological surveillance for CBPP. Important decisions on control options are based on information obtained from such surveillance. This manual has been prepared with these factors in view and it is expected that it will assist all stakeholders in cattle production on the African continent and elsewhere with familiarization with key epidemiological features of the disease, allowing early recognition and diagnosis.

Remember: Early warning is the key to early reaction for containment, control and rapid elimination.

For details on this and other publications, and to obtain additional copies, contact:

EMPRES (Livestock)
Animal Health Service
FAO Animal Production and Health Division
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
00100 Rome, Italy

Tel: (+39) 06 5705 4798/4184
Fax: (+39) 06 57053023
EMPRES home page:

To read more and print…

DAFF website

NAHF website

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In this Processed Food & Beverages SA Trade Directory 2018-2019 (2nd Edition) you will read

  • Foreword

The Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) is pleased to present the second edition of the Processed Food & Beverages SA Trade Directory — a unique compilation of information on processed food and beverage exports and step-by-step export advice for the South African exporter…

  • Food South Africa

An innovative enabling environment
Food South Africa is a Business Member Organisation providing an engagement platform for the agro-processing sector in South Africa where academia, support agencies, key strategic stakeholders and government can interact with the industry…

  • Introduction

The second edition (2nd) of this magnificent and highly sought after agro-processing handbook is again packed with industry facts, figures and data and is globally in demand with business people, ambassadors, trade and investment promotion agencies, private and public sector stakeholders all waiting to receive the much-improved version from its inaugural publication…

  • Agro-processing Industry in South Africa – An Overview 

The agro-processing industry is among the sectors identified by the Industrial Policy Action Plan (IPAP), the New Growth Path (NGP) and the National Development Plan (NDP) for its potential to spur economic growth and create sustainable employment because of its strong backward linkage with the primary agricultural sector, and forward linkages with retail, wholesale and other value-adding industries…

  • Section 1 Processed Plant Products

  • Section 2 Processed Animal Products

  • Section 3 DAFF step-by-step Export Manual

  • Section 4 Processed Food Trade Service Providers

To read more or to print

Food South Africa website

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Aetiology Epidemiology Diagnosis Prevention and Control References

Classification of the causative agent

Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Small Colony – bovine biotype (MmmSC)

The M. mycoides cluster consists of six mycoplasma strains from bovines and goats that share serological and genetic characteristics, creating difficulties for taxonomy and diagnostics by traditional techniques.
Specific identification of MmmSC can now be achieved by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or the use of specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Although MmmSC has been considered to be a very homogeneous biotype, recent molecular techniques have identified differences among strains. Recently described multi-locus sequence analysis distinguishes the three main lineages that correlate with their geographical origins (Europe, Southern Africa, rest of Africa). The strains of European origin can be differentiated from African ones by molecular methods, and are not able to oxidise glycerol, which may account for an apparent lower pathogenicity. African strains seem to be more diverse. The sequence of the complete genome of the reference strain PG1 has been published.

Mycoplasmas lack cell walls and are, therefore, a) pleomorphic and b) resistant to antibiotics of the betalactamine group, such as penicillin.

Growth of mycoplasma is relatively fastidious and requires special media rich in cholesterol (addition of horse serum).

Resistance to physical and chemical action 

Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC does not survive for long in the environment and transmission requires close contact, although, under favourable atmospheric conditions of humidity and wind, aerosols can transport the agent for longer distances.

Temperature: Inactivated within 60 minutes at 56°C and 2 minutes at 60°C

pH: Inactivated by acid and alkaline pH

Chemicals/Disinfectants: Inactivated by many of the routinely used disinfectants. Inactivated by mercuric chloride (0.01%/1 minute), phenol (1%/3 minute), and formaldehyde solution (0.5%/30 seconds)

Survival: Survives outside the host for up to 3 days in tropical areas and up to 2 weeks in temperate zones. May survive more than 10 years frozen.


Cattle, both Bos taurus and Bos indicus, are the main hosts. Infections have also been reported from Asian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), captive bison (Bison bison) and yak (Poephagus grunnien, formerly Bos grunnien). Sheep and goats can also be naturally infected, but with no clear associated pathology. Wild bovids and camels seem to be resistant, and, so far, do not appear to be important in the transmission of CBPP.

Incubation period of the disease is usually 1–4 months, but can be longer. After experimental inoculation into the trachea, clinical signs may appear in 2–3 weeks.

• CBPP is spread mainly by inhalation of droplets from infected coughing animals, especially if they are in the acute phase of the disease.

• Although close and repeated contact is generally thought to be necessary for transmission, transmission may occur up to 200 metres under favourable climatic conditions 2

• Organism also occurs in saliva, urine, fetal membranes and uterine discharges.

• Transplacental infection can occur

• Nonclinical bovine carriers with chronic infection are a major source of infection and may retain viable organisms in encapsulated lung lesions (sequestra) for up to 2 years.

􀂃 It is widely believed that recovered animals harbouring infectious organisms within pulmonary sequestra may become active shedders when stressed or immuno-depressed.

• Cattle movement is an important factor in the spread of the disease

• Outbreaks usually begin as the result of movement and contact of an infected animal with a naive herd

• There are a few anecdotal reports of transmission on fomites, but Mycoplasmas do not survive for long periods in the environment, and indirect transmission is thought to be unimportant.

Sources of infection

MmmSC occurs in great numbers in bronchial secretions, nasal discharges, exhaled air and nasal aerosols. Spread of infection through urine droplets was not fully confirmed. Microorganisms have also been isolated from bull semen, but transmission through semen requires further investigation.

CBPP is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, including countries in the West, South, East, and Central regions of Africa.

For more recent, detailed information on the occurrence of this disease worldwide, see the OIE
World Animal Health Information Database (WAHID) Interface [] or refer to the latest issues of the World Animal Health and the OIE Bulletin.

Clinical diagnosis 

In adults
• Initial signs are usually a depressed, inappetent animal with moderate fever, followed by coughing, thoracic pain and increased respiratory rate.

• As pneumonia progresses, there is laboured respiration and dyspnoea, and animals prefer to stand with elbows abducted to decrease thoracic pain and increase chest capacity

• Auscultation of the lungs may reveal a wide variety of sounds, depending on how severely the subjacent pulmonary parenchyma is affected.

􀂃 Reputations, rales, and pleuretic friction rubs are all possible.
􀂃 At percussion, dull sounds can be noticed in the low areas of the thorax.

• CBPP often evolves into a chronic disease, characterised by ill thrift and recurrent low-grade fever that may be difficult to recognise as pneumonia

• Forced exercise may precipitate coughing

In Calves

• Pulmonary tropism is not the general rule, and infected calves present arthritis with swelling of the joints
o Co-existence of pulmonary signs in adults and arthritis in young animals should alert the clinician to a diagnosis of CBPP

• Gross pathologic lesions of the lung are characteristic and often unilateral; the affected pulmonary parenchyma is odourless 3

• The predominant gross change is consolidation, or thickening, of individual lobules that become encased in markedly widened interlobular septa, resulting in the characteristic marbled appearance

• Interlobular septa become distended first by oedema, then by fibrin, and finally by fibrosis; the organism produces a necrotising toxin, galactan, which allows for this extensive spread through septa

• Abundant yellow or turbid exudate in the pleural cavity (up to 30 litres in severe cases) that coagulates to form large fibrinous clots

• Fibrinous pleurisy: thickening and inflammation of the pleura with fibrous deposits

• Interlobular oedema, marbled appearance due to hepatisation and consolidation at different stages of evolution usually confined to one lung

• Sequestrate with fibrous capsule surrounding grey necrotic tissue (coagulative necrosis) in recovered animals

• MmmSC can survive within these sequestra for months or longer, facilitating spread

Differential diagnosis
Acute form
• Acute bovine pasteurellosis
• Haemorrhagic septicaemia
• East Coast fever (theileriosis)
• Bovine ephemeral fever
• Traumatic pericarditis

Chronic form
• Ecchinococcosis (hydatid cyst)
• Actinobacillosis
• Abscesses, tuberculosis, bovine farcy

Laboratory diagnosis Samples
• Samples from live animals include nasal swabs and/or broncho-alveolar washings, or pleural fluid obtained by puncture; blood and sera should also be collected• Samples to be taken at necropsy are lung lesions, lymph nodes, pleural fluid and synovial fluid from those animals with arthritis
• Samples should be shipped cool but may be frozen if transport to the laboratory is delayed


Identification of the agent
• Isolation of pathogen from clinical samples and identification by metabolic and growth inhibition tests
• The growth of MmmSC takes can take up to 10 days. In specific culture media (agar and broth), growth is visible within 3–10 days as a homogeneous cloudiness with whirls when shaken; on agar, small colonies develop, 1 mm in diameter, with the classical ‘fried-egg’ appearance.
• The organism is then identified routinely with immunological tests (growth inhibition, immunofluorescence or dot immunobinding on a membrane filter [MF-dot] test)
• Definitive identification is best done by an OIE Reference Laboratory (, using biochemical tests combined with immunological assays.
• Polymerase chain reaction is now used as a rapid, specific, sensitive and easy to use test 4

Serological tests
• Modified Campbell & Turner complement fixation (CF) test is suitable for determining existence of disease and is a prescribed test in the OIE Terrestrial Manual. However, it has low sensitivity (70%), and may miss animals in early infection, those with chronic lesions, and those where therapy has been given; for herds, however, it can detect nearly 100% of infected groups.
• Competitive ELISA is also an OIE prescribed test for international trade and is described in the OIE Terrestrial Manual.
• An immunoblotting test (IBT) is highly specific and sensitive; it should be used at the local level in CBPP eradication programmes as a confirmatory test for positive or doubtful results after screening by the CF test and/or ELISA.

For more detailed information regarding laboratory diagnostic methodologies, please refer to Chapter 2.4.9 Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in the latest edition of the OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals under the heading “Diagnostic Techniques”.

Effectiveness of treatment has not been adequately studied. Antibiotic treatment is not recommended because it may delay recognition of the disease, create chronic carriers and encourage emergence of resistant MmmSC strains. The methods used for control depend on the epidemiological situation, animal husbandry methods in effect, and the availability and efficacy of veterinary services in a specific country.

Sanitary prophylaxis
• In disease-free areas: quarantine, movement controls, serological screening and slaughtering of all positive and in-contact animals
• Control of cattle movements is the most efficient way of limiting the spread of CBPP

Medical prophylaxis
• In enzootic areas like Africa vaccination is very important in the control of CBPP
• The only vaccines commonly used today are produced with attenuated MmmSC strains; their efficacy is directly related to the virulence of the original strain used in production
• Attenuated virulent strains stimulate the best immunity, but also induce the most severe and undesirable local and systemic reactions
• Two strains are used for preparing CBPP vaccines: strain T1/44, a naturally mild strain isolated in 1951 by Sheriff & Piercy in Tanzania, and strain T1sr; T1sr is completely avirulent but has shorter immunity than T1/44, which may induce an unpredictable number of animals with post-vaccinal reactions requiring treatment with antibiotics two to
three weeks after vaccination
• In low prevalence or free areas such as Europe, vaccination is not recommended as it can interfere with screening surveillance serological tests

For more detailed information regarding vaccines please refer to Chapter 2.4.9 Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in the latest edition of the OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for
Terrestrial Animals under the heading “Requirements for Vaccines and Diagnostic Biologicals”.

For more detailed information regarding safe international trade in terrestrial animals and their products, please refer to the latest edition of the Terrestrial Animal Health Code.

• Brown C. & Torres A., Eds. (2008). – USAHA Foreign Animal Diseases, Seventh Edition.
Committee of Foreign and Emerging Diseases of the US Animal Health Association. Boca
Publications Group, Inc.
• Coetzer J.A.W. & Tustin R.C., Eds. (2004). – Infectious Diseases of Livestock, 2nd Edition. Oxford
University Press.
• Recommended standards for epidemiological surveillance systems for Contagious Bovine
Pleuropneumonia. 1997. Rev. Sci. Tech. 16 (3): 898-918
• World Organisation for Animal Health (2009). – Terrestrial Animal Health Code. OIE, Paris.;;
• World Organisation for Animal Health (2008). – Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals. OIE, Paris.;

The OIE will periodically update the OIE Technical Disease Cards. Please send relevant new references and proposed modifications to the OIE Scientific and Technical Department ( Last updated October 2009.

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