RECOGNIZING CONTAGIOUS BOVINE PLEUROPNEUMONIA – (REVISED EDITION)
This booklet is one of a series prepared by FAO’s Emergency System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases (EMPRES) (Livestock) Unit as an aid to emergency preparedness for major transboundary diseases of livestock.
Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Small Colony variant (MmmSC), is a major obstacle to cattle production in Africa, and indeed considered to be one of the great cattle plagues, following closely on the heels of rinderpest. The disease appeared to be under control in the 1970s following intensive vaccination coupled with strict movement controls. However, it made a spectacular return in the 1990s, affecting areas previously known to be free from the disease. Increased outbreaks were likewise observed in known enzootic areas. The ability to recognize the disease in the field and the capability to confirm the diagnosis of the disease in the laboratory accurately are very important components of epidemiological surveillance for CBPP. Important decisions on control options are based on information obtained from such surveillance. This manual has been prepared with these factors in view and it is expected that it will assist all stakeholders in cattle production on the African continent and elsewhere with familiarization with key epidemiological features of the disease, allowing early recognition and diagnosis.
Remember: Early warning is the key to early reaction for containment, control and rapid elimination.
For details on this and other publications, and to obtain additional copies, contact:
Animal Health Service
FAO Animal Production and Health Division
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
00100 Rome, Italy
Tel: (+39) 06 5705 4798/4184
Fax: (+39) 06 57053023
EMPRES home page: www.fao.org/empres
In this Processed Food & Beverages SA Trade Directory 2018-2019 (2nd Edition) you will read…
The Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) is pleased to present the second edition of the Processed Food & Beverages SA Trade Directory — a unique compilation of information on processed food and beverage exports and step-by-step export advice for the South African exporter…
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Section 1 Processed Plant Products
Section 2 Processed Animal Products
Section 3 DAFF step-by-step Export Manual
Section 4 Processed Food Trade Service Providers
CONTAGIOUS BOVINE PLEUROPNEUMONIA
Aetiology Epidemiology Diagnosis Prevention and Control References
Classification of the causative agent
Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Small Colony – bovine biotype (MmmSC)
The M. mycoides cluster consists of six mycoplasma strains from bovines and goats that share serological and genetic characteristics, creating difficulties for taxonomy and diagnostics by traditional techniques.
Specific identification of MmmSC can now be achieved by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or the use of specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Although MmmSC has been considered to be a very homogeneous biotype, recent molecular techniques have identified differences among strains. Recently described multi-locus sequence analysis distinguishes the three main lineages that correlate with their geographical origins (Europe, Southern Africa, rest of Africa). The strains of European origin can be differentiated from African ones by molecular methods, and are not able to oxidise glycerol, which may account for an apparent lower pathogenicity. African strains seem to be more diverse. The sequence of the complete genome of the reference strain PG1 has been published.
Mycoplasmas lack cell walls and are, therefore, a) pleomorphic and b) resistant to antibiotics of the betalactamine group, such as penicillin.
Growth of mycoplasma is relatively fastidious and requires special media rich in cholesterol (addition of horse serum).
Resistance to physical and chemical action
Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC does not survive for long in the environment and transmission requires close contact, although, under favourable atmospheric conditions of humidity and wind, aerosols can transport the agent for longer distances.
Temperature: Inactivated within 60 minutes at 56°C and 2 minutes at 60°C
pH: Inactivated by acid and alkaline pH
Chemicals/Disinfectants: Inactivated by many of the routinely used disinfectants. Inactivated by mercuric chloride (0.01%/1 minute), phenol (1%/3 minute), and formaldehyde solution (0.5%/30 seconds)
Survival: Survives outside the host for up to 3 days in tropical areas and up to 2 weeks in temperate zones. May survive more than 10 years frozen.
Cattle, both Bos taurus and Bos indicus, are the main hosts. Infections have also been reported from Asian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), captive bison (Bison bison) and yak (Poephagus grunnien, formerly Bos grunnien). Sheep and goats can also be naturally infected, but with no clear associated pathology. Wild bovids and camels seem to be resistant, and, so far, do not appear to be important in the transmission of CBPP.
Incubation period of the disease is usually 1–4 months, but can be longer. After experimental inoculation into the trachea, clinical signs may appear in 2–3 weeks.
• CBPP is spread mainly by inhalation of droplets from infected coughing animals, especially if they are in the acute phase of the disease.
• Although close and repeated contact is generally thought to be necessary for transmission, transmission may occur up to 200 metres under favourable climatic conditions 2
• Organism also occurs in saliva, urine, fetal membranes and uterine discharges.
• Transplacental infection can occur
• Nonclinical bovine carriers with chronic infection are a major source of infection and may retain viable organisms in encapsulated lung lesions (sequestra) for up to 2 years.
It is widely believed that recovered animals harbouring infectious organisms within pulmonary sequestra may become active shedders when stressed or immuno-depressed.
• Cattle movement is an important factor in the spread of the disease
• Outbreaks usually begin as the result of movement and contact of an infected animal with a naive herd
• There are a few anecdotal reports of transmission on fomites, but Mycoplasmas do not survive for long periods in the environment, and indirect transmission is thought to be unimportant.
Sources of infection
MmmSC occurs in great numbers in bronchial secretions, nasal discharges, exhaled air and nasal aerosols. Spread of infection through urine droplets was not fully confirmed. Microorganisms have also been isolated from bull semen, but transmission through semen requires further investigation.
CBPP is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, including countries in the West, South, East, and Central regions of Africa.
For more recent, detailed information on the occurrence of this disease worldwide, see the OIE
World Animal Health Information Database (WAHID) Interface [http://www.oie.int/wahis/public.php?page=home] or refer to the latest issues of the World Animal Health and the OIE Bulletin.
• Initial signs are usually a depressed, inappetent animal with moderate fever, followed by coughing, thoracic pain and increased respiratory rate.
• As pneumonia progresses, there is laboured respiration and dyspnoea, and animals prefer to stand with elbows abducted to decrease thoracic pain and increase chest capacity
• Auscultation of the lungs may reveal a wide variety of sounds, depending on how severely the subjacent pulmonary parenchyma is affected.
Reputations, rales, and pleuretic friction rubs are all possible.
At percussion, dull sounds can be noticed in the low areas of the thorax.
• CBPP often evolves into a chronic disease, characterised by ill thrift and recurrent low-grade fever that may be difficult to recognise as pneumonia
• Forced exercise may precipitate coughing
• Pulmonary tropism is not the general rule, and infected calves present arthritis with swelling of the joints
o Co-existence of pulmonary signs in adults and arthritis in young animals should alert the clinician to a diagnosis of CBPP
• Gross pathologic lesions of the lung are characteristic and often unilateral; the affected pulmonary parenchyma is odourless 3
• The predominant gross change is consolidation, or thickening, of individual lobules that become encased in markedly widened interlobular septa, resulting in the characteristic marbled appearance
• Interlobular septa become distended first by oedema, then by fibrin, and finally by fibrosis; the organism produces a necrotising toxin, galactan, which allows for this extensive spread through septa
• Abundant yellow or turbid exudate in the pleural cavity (up to 30 litres in severe cases) that coagulates to form large fibrinous clots
• Fibrinous pleurisy: thickening and inflammation of the pleura with fibrous deposits
• Interlobular oedema, marbled appearance due to hepatisation and consolidation at different stages of evolution usually confined to one lung
• Sequestrate with fibrous capsule surrounding grey necrotic tissue (coagulative necrosis) in recovered animals
• MmmSC can survive within these sequestra for months or longer, facilitating spread
• Acute bovine pasteurellosis
• Haemorrhagic septicaemia
• East Coast fever (theileriosis)
• Bovine ephemeral fever
• Traumatic pericarditis
• Ecchinococcosis (hydatid cyst)
• Abscesses, tuberculosis, bovine farcy
Laboratory diagnosis Samples
• Samples from live animals include nasal swabs and/or broncho-alveolar washings, or pleural fluid obtained by puncture; blood and sera should also be collected• Samples to be taken at necropsy are lung lesions, lymph nodes, pleural fluid and synovial fluid from those animals with arthritis
• Samples should be shipped cool but may be frozen if transport to the laboratory is delayed
Identification of the agent
• Isolation of pathogen from clinical samples and identification by metabolic and growth inhibition tests
• The growth of MmmSC takes can take up to 10 days. In specific culture media (agar and broth), growth is visible within 3–10 days as a homogeneous cloudiness with whirls when shaken; on agar, small colonies develop, 1 mm in diameter, with the classical ‘fried-egg’ appearance.
• The organism is then identified routinely with immunological tests (growth inhibition, immunofluorescence or dot immunobinding on a membrane filter [MF-dot] test)
• Definitive identification is best done by an OIE Reference Laboratory (http://www.oie.int/eng/OIE/organisation/en_listeLR.htm), using biochemical tests combined with immunological assays.
• Polymerase chain reaction is now used as a rapid, specific, sensitive and easy to use test 4
• Modified Campbell & Turner complement fixation (CF) test is suitable for determining existence of disease and is a prescribed test in the OIE Terrestrial Manual. However, it has low sensitivity (70%), and may miss animals in early infection, those with chronic lesions, and those where therapy has been given; for herds, however, it can detect nearly 100% of infected groups.
• Competitive ELISA is also an OIE prescribed test for international trade and is described in the OIE Terrestrial Manual.
• An immunoblotting test (IBT) is highly specific and sensitive; it should be used at the local level in CBPP eradication programmes as a confirmatory test for positive or doubtful results after screening by the CF test and/or ELISA.
For more detailed information regarding laboratory diagnostic methodologies, please refer to Chapter 2.4.9 Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in the latest edition of the OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals under the heading “Diagnostic Techniques”.
PREVENTION AND CONTROL
Effectiveness of treatment has not been adequately studied. Antibiotic treatment is not recommended because it may delay recognition of the disease, create chronic carriers and encourage emergence of resistant MmmSC strains. The methods used for control depend on the epidemiological situation, animal husbandry methods in effect, and the availability and efficacy of veterinary services in a specific country.
• In disease-free areas: quarantine, movement controls, serological screening and slaughtering of all positive and in-contact animals
• Control of cattle movements is the most efficient way of limiting the spread of CBPP
• In enzootic areas like Africa vaccination is very important in the control of CBPP
• The only vaccines commonly used today are produced with attenuated MmmSC strains; their efficacy is directly related to the virulence of the original strain used in production
• Attenuated virulent strains stimulate the best immunity, but also induce the most severe and undesirable local and systemic reactions
• Two strains are used for preparing CBPP vaccines: strain T1/44, a naturally mild strain isolated in 1951 by Sheriff & Piercy in Tanzania, and strain T1sr; T1sr is completely avirulent but has shorter immunity than T1/44, which may induce an unpredictable number of animals with post-vaccinal reactions requiring treatment with antibiotics two to
three weeks after vaccination
• In low prevalence or free areas such as Europe, vaccination is not recommended as it can interfere with screening surveillance serological tests
For more detailed information regarding vaccines please refer to Chapter 2.4.9 Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in the latest edition of the OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for
Terrestrial Animals under the heading “Requirements for Vaccines and Diagnostic Biologicals”.
For more detailed information regarding safe international trade in terrestrial animals and their products, please refer to the latest edition of the Terrestrial Animal Health Code.
REFERENCES AND OTHER INFORMATION
• Brown C. & Torres A., Eds. (2008). – USAHA Foreign Animal Diseases, Seventh Edition.
Committee of Foreign and Emerging Diseases of the US Animal Health Association. Boca
Publications Group, Inc.
• Coetzer J.A.W. & Tustin R.C., Eds. (2004). – Infectious Diseases of Livestock, 2nd Edition. Oxford
• Recommended standards for epidemiological surveillance systems for Contagious Bovine
Pleuropneumonia. 1997. Rev. Sci. Tech. 16 (3): 898-918
• World Organisation for Animal Health (2009). – Terrestrial Animal Health Code. OIE, Paris.
• World Organisation for Animal Health (2008). – Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals. OIE, Paris. http://www.oie.int/Eng/Normes/Mmanual/A_summry.htm;
The OIE will periodically update the OIE Technical Disease Cards. Please send relevant new references and proposed modifications to the OIE Scientific and Technical Department (email@example.com). Last updated October 2009.
What is Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia
Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a disease of cattle and water buffalo caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. Mycoides (M. mycoides). As the name suggests, it attacks the lungs and the membranes that line the thoracic cavity (the pleura) causing fever and respiratory signs such as laboured or rapid respiration, cough and nasal discharges. Because it is highly contagious with a mortality rate of up to 50%, it causes significant economic losses. CBPP is a prominent cattle disease in Africa.
CBPP is a disease listed by the OIE in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code. Member countries are obligated to report occurrences of the disease according to the standards in the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code.
CBPP is one of the diseases for which the OIE has official recognition status. The OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code specifies the steps a country must follow in order to be officially recognized by the OIE as free of CBPP.
Where is the disease found?
CBPP was known in Europe as early as the 16th century. It was spread throughout the world by increased international trade in live cattle in the second half of the 19th century. Stamping out policy eradicated the disease from many countries; however, it currently persists in sub-Saharan Africa.
How is the disease transmitted and spread?
Transmission of the disease occurs through direct contact between an infected and a susceptible animal which becomes infected by inhaling droplets disseminated by coughing. Since some animals can carry the disease without showing signs of illness, controlling the spread is more difficult. There is no evidence of transmission through
fomites (inanimate objects such as clothing, implements or vehicles) as the organism does not persist in the environment.
What are the clinical signs of the disease?
CBPP is manifested by loss of appetite, fever and respiratory signs, such as rapid respiratory rate, cough and nasal discharges and painful, difficult breathing. In hot climates, an affected animal often stands by itself in the shade, its head lowered and extended, its back slightly arched, and its limbs turned out. In many cases, the disease progresses rapidly, animals lose condition, and breathing becomes very laboured, with a grunt at expiration.
The animals become recumbent (lie down) and in severe cases die after 1-3 wk.
The mortality rate may be as high as 50% in the absence of antibiotic treatment. However, clinical signs are not always evident. Subacute or asymptomatic forms can occur as affected animals partially recover after a period of three to four weeks. However, these cattle may be capable of spreading the disease, acting as unapparent carriers.
How is the disease diagnosed?
The diagnosis is based on isolation of M. mycoides from samples such as nasal swabs and/or lung washings or pleural fluid obtained by puncture, or necropsy samples. The Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals details the diagnostic procedures for CBPP.
What is being done to prevent or control the disease?
The main problems for control or eradication are the frequent occurrence of subacute or unapparent infections and the persistence of chronic carriers after the clinical phase. In most continents, control strategies are based
on the early detection of outbreaks, control of animal movements and a stamping-out policy. This has successfully eliminated the disease from North America and Europe. In Africa control of the disease is currently based mainly on vaccination campaigns.
Surveillance of the disease through slaughterhouse inspection is a very efficient method of detecting clinical cases.
Treatment of affected animals with antibiotics can result in healthy looking animals that are still infected and able to spread the disease, so it is not recommended. Vaccination with an attenuated strain of the bacteria is used to reduce the level of infection. Vaccine is produced following the guideline in the OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals.
What is the public health risk associated with this disease?
Humans are not known to be susceptible to contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, so there is no public health risk.
G e n e r a l D i s e a s e I n f o r m a t i o n S h e e t s
List of Reference Laboratories: refer to the fact sheet
Ask our experts: refer to the fact sheet
List of Collaborating Centres:
1. OIE Terrestrial Animal Health
2. OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animal:
3. OIE Technical Disease Card:
4. The Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University
5. Merck Veterinary Manual:
6. Atlas of Transboundary Animal Diseases Animales Transfronterizas P. Fernandez, W. White; Ed.: 2011 6
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Cover photo: © N.Denormandie OIE.
Inside photos: © N.Denormandie OIE,
© J.Crenn INRA, © M.Gosselin INRA,
© C.Slagmulder INRA.
• One of the three great historic cattle plagues of the world, (along with Foot and Mouth Disease and Rinderpest), CBPP was first recognized in Germany in 1693. The history of its introduction to countries and subsequent eradication often parallels the development of veterinary services.
• The USA has been free of the disease since 1892, the UK since 1898, Zimbabwe since 1904, South Africa (where the disease was introduced by the importation of infected bulls from Holland in 1853) since 1924, Australia since 1970s and China since the 1980s.
• After its elimination from Europe in the nineteenth century, the disease reappeared in Portugal and Spain in 1951 and 1957, respectively. A few outbreaks were reported in southern France, the latest in 1984. In Italy, the disease reappeared in 1990 but was eliminated by 1993, and the last case in Europe was in Portugal in 1999.
Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) situation in South Africa (December 2018)
Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a disease of cattle and water buffalo caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. Mycoides (M. mycoides). As the name suggests, it attacks the lungs and the membranes that line the thoracic cavity (the pleura) causing fever and respiratory signs such as laboured or rapid respiration, cough and nasal discharges. Because it is highly contagious with a mortality rate of up to 50%, it causes significant economic losses.
CBPP status of South Africa
CBPP is a prominent cattle disease in Africa, but South Africa is currently free of CBPP, with an officially recognised OIE free status. As a controlled disease, all suspicions of CBPP have to be reported to the Director of Animal Health. In addition, South Africa conducts active serological surveillance for CBPP in all of the Provinces with international borders, as well as Gauteng.
Clinical and Pathological Signs
CBPP is manifested by loss of appetite, fever and respiratory signs, such as rapid respiratory rate, cough and nasal discharges and painful, difficult breathing. In many cases, the disease progresses rapidly, animals lose condition, and breathing becomes very laboured, with a grunt at expiration. The animals become recumbent (lie down) and in severe cases die after 1-3 wk. The mortality rate may be as high as 50% in the absence of antibiotic treatment. However, clinical signs are not always evident. Chronic cases are emaciated and coughing often occurs when the animal rises.
On post-mortem, CBPP is characterized by a severe, fibrinous pleuropneumonia, with pronounced marbling. In the acute stage, there is often a uni- or bi-lateral pleural effusion that may exceed 10 litres. In chronic cases, one or more sequestra (10 – 300mm in diameter) usually occur.
What to do if you suspect a case of CBPP
If a suspicious case is identified, please notify the local State Veterinarian immediately. State Veterinarians should notify their Provincial Directors, who should notify the Director of Animal Health at the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.
In live animals, blood samples can be collected for serology. Pathological samples that can be collected in live animals for PCR, include nasal swabs or discharge, broncho-alveolar lavage samples or aseptically collected transtracheal washing and pleural fluid. In dead animals, lung lesions, lymph nodes and pleural fluid can be collected for PCR testing.
For further details on CBPP, including the identification of suspicious cases and the collection of samples, please refer to the awareness materials on the DAFF website at: http://www.daff.gov.za/daffweb3/Branches/Agricultural-Production-Health-Food-Safety/Animal-Health/Awareness-material
The Trumpet Newsletter – Issue 4 – 30 Nov 2018
Addressing the climate change issue in the agricultural sector.
The Trumpet is an economic research newsletter established as an alternative option for stakeholders to
access research outputs of the NAMC. This is the fourth issue of the economic research newsletter compiled
by the Markets and Economic Research Centre (MERC). The newsletter seeks to summarise the latest research
along with communicating information on recent and upcoming events of interest to our stakeholders.
Renewable Energy: By Moses Lubinga
In the agricultural sector, much attention within the concept of climate change is drawn towards activities at the
production phase. However, agriculture goes far beyond the production phase and some evidence actually reveals that
more greenhouse gases (GHGs) are emitted at post-harvest level, particularly for commodities that require cold storage
and processing. Post-harvest activities along the various commodity value chains also play a significant role in the
generation of greenhouse gases (GHGs), which is the root cause of climate change. This, therefore, calls for an urgent
need to also draw much attention to these activities so as to attain South Africa’s envisaged GHG emission reduction
targets of 34% by 2020 and 42% by 2025 as enshrined in the Carbon Tax policy. Read more…
Comparing prices received by participating and nonparticipating farmers in the custom feeding initiative of the National Red Meat Development Programme: A case of KwaZulu-Natal Province: By Moses Lubinga, Ndumiso Mazibuko & Kayalethu Sotsha
Livestock farming forms the backbone of agriculture in most of South Africa’s poorest rural areas. Out of 13 L million herd in South Africa, about 5.2 million (40%) is in the hands of communal farmers. However, this group of
farmers does not participate fully into the mainstream value chain due to numerous reasons including poor grazing land and overstocking. The complexities and the non-availability of readily discernible information within the developing sector makes it a challenge for any formative intervention. Read more…
The impact of anti-dumping duty on consumer prices of frozen bone-in chicken portion imports from the European Union: By By Moses Lubinga, Bonani Nyhodo & Simphiwe Ngqangweni
In 2013, the South Africa Poultry Association (SAPA) raised a concern that frozen bone-in portions of fowls of the species gallus domesticus (hs 0207.14.9) were being imported into the country at dumped prices, thereby negatively
affecting the poultry industry within the entire Southern African Customs Union (SACU) region. Read more…
Agriculture and the African continental free trade area. By: Ron Sandrey,Willemien Viljoen, Thandeka Ntshangase, Mélanie Mugrefya, Yolanda Potelwa, Thabo Motsepe, Molupe Pheko, Puseletso Sauli, Talkmore Chidede, Nikki Jacobs & Johnson Maiketso
The African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) is part of the African Union’s broader push to achieve greater regional integration and development and its main aim is to boost intra-African trade. Read more…
Journey as a senior economist: By Kayalethu Sotsha
Kayalethu Sotsha is a Senior Economist within MERC division under Smallholder Market Access Research Unit. Kayalethu is from a farming rural area (Bukazi Administrative Area) of Lusikisiki, a small town under the Ingquza Hill Local Municipality in the Eastern Cape Province. He holds a Master’s degree in Agricultural Economics obtained from the University of Fort Hare where he also obtained his undergraduate degree.
Welcome New MERC Colleagues
Watch video clips…
Dates of upcoming events…
NAMC/AEASA workshop and Seminar. Read more…
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Here are the real Henk, Barend, Jurgens and Magda!
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Young chefs take pork to the next level.
Ensminger Pig Symposium to be hosted for first time in Africa.
A study trip to investigate carcass evaluation.
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Media training welcomed.
Save the date for Topigs Norsvin’s 2019 Africa Pork Event.
Agbiz disappointed and concerned about proposed amendment of Constitution.
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Government thinks review of just 0.01% of submissions is sufficient to change S25 of Constitution
NATIONAL STOCK THEFT PREVENTION FORUM
The National Stock Theft Prevention Forum (NSTPF) on 20 November 2018 had its meeting to discuss the challenges facing the criminal justice system and all role players regarding livestock theft in South Africa. The following information is of importance.
Nationally the number of animals stolen increased in all the provinces. The provinces with the highest increase are the Eastern Cape followed by KwaZulu-Natal and Free State. In Mpumalanga there is an increase in sheep theft and in North West a serious increase in the theft of goats. The SAPS National Stock Theft and Endangered Species Unit, identified 30 stations all over the country that need serious attention as they are regarded national “Hotspot” stations.
|Eastern Cape||Sulenkama/Bityi/Mtahata/Maluti /Mount Frere/Qumbu|
|Western Cape||Caledon/Beaufort West|
The NSTPF resolved that each province, with the assistance of the local farming communities and stock theft units of a particular area, establish a Stock Theft Information Centre (STIC) as a matter of urgency, to address the high prevalence of livestock theft in their respective areas. The meeting resolved that all provinces must report back at the next scheduled meeting to be held in May 2019, on the successful establishment of the STIC’s and actions taken on local level to reduce livestock theft.
Other aspects discussed at the meeting that need serious attention are :-
- It was recommended that the Minister of Agriculture. Forestry and Fisheries should change the age that cattle/calves must be marked. No animal will be allowed to be sold if not marked – irrespective of age. This would result that no weaner calves can be sold to/bought by any person/organisation in the value chain without being tattooed – irrespective of age.
- The training of prosecutors in prosecuting livestock theft cases will receive the highest priority permitting the budget/personnel constraints within the National Prosecuting Authority.
- The NSTPF will seek an urgent appointment with DAFF and SAPS’s legal advisors to seriously address the publications of the Animal and Produce Movement Act, as well as the Pounds Act.
With this information at hand and with the festive season and planting season ahead, the National Stock Theft Prevention Forum requests :-
- That all livestock owners register a unique brand mark in their name and to apply it to all livestock in their possession in the prescribed manner as described in the Animal Identification Act 2002, Act 6 of 2002;
- The completion and submission of the “Document of Identification” and “Stock Removal Certificate” with all transactions;
- That all livestock buyers, auctioneers, feedlots and abattoirs confirm livestock ownership and refuse to take ownership of livestock that are not marked or where the necessary “Document of Identification” and “Stock Removal Certificate” are not supplied;
- That all “Documents of Identification” be kept on record for 12 months;
- That farmers count their livestock regularly and do not simply stop the practice during the planting season. When livestock is only counted after the planting period and losses discovered, it is simply too late.
- From a criminological point of departure, producers are advised to regularly change all routines on their farms. Perpetrators access the routines on farms and, producers who do not change their routines are more prone to livestock theft than those who do not abide by a strict routine. Aspects that can be changed – do not count on the same time every day, do not visit cattle posts on the same time every day – change your routine.
The National Stock Theft Prevention Forum requests that all role players in the red meat industry urgently play an active role in stock theft prevention and urge the general public for their assistance.
– ooo O ooo –
23 November 2018
Mr Willie Clack Mr Gerhard Schutte
Chairman : Nat Stock Theft Prevention Forum CEO : RPO
Cell phone : 082 574 2653 Cell phone : 082 556 7296
Email : email@example.com Email : firstname.lastname@example.org
DEHORNING OF CATTLE BY CAUSTIC CHEMICAL AGENTS
Dehorning of cattle may be justified in terms of prevention of goring, bruising and even killing other cattle. However dehorning must be done using the right method, the right equipment, to the right class of animal and the right time of year, by operators who are correctly trained, know the risks and how to minimise them, and conduct the right follow-up procedures.
Dehorning by caustic agents poses a serious risk of damage to other parts of the body if the agent is not strictly confined to the horn. The caustic substance may run down from the point of application and damage eyes, ears and face. Rain and moisture may aid this spread and increase the risk. Animals may rub the treated area against objects or even other cattle and thus cause further damage. Using this method implies that only very young calves with small horn buds can be dehorned. For these reasons, using caustic substances is not the recommended method dehorning. In spite of its own limitations and risks, dehorning by hot iron after disbudding remains the preferred method on the grounds of animal welfare.
ELECTRO-IMMOBILISATION OF LIVESTOCK
Devices are available that immobilise livestock by passing a small electrical current through specifically placed electrodes and cause spasm in skeletal muscles. Immobilisation may be required to carry out certain procedures with safety to both the operator and animal, where untoward movement may cause pain or damage. Excessive current settings or inappropriate placement can cause distress, dyspnoea and even luxations or fractures and death. There is no anaesthesia or diminution of pain whatsoever that results from the use of these devices, and therefore they can never be used as a substitute for anaesthesia or to mask pain that should have been prevented by other means. The use of electroimmobilisers must be limited to those situations requiring immobilisation but not anaesthesia. Operators must be responsible persons (or under responsible supervision) who are aware of the dangers and limitations of these devices, must be fully trained and only use them in situations where they are justified. The device must be applied for the minimum appropriate time for any given procedure. The class and age of animal must be taken into account and only used on animals where this is appropriate and recommended.
IMMUNO-CASTRATION OF PIGS
Surgical castration of livestock has inherent risks, no matter what precautions are taken. Therefore alternative methods that impose less risk may benefit the welfare of livestock. In pigs, a system has been developed that renders males sterile by injection, which is less risky for pigs but carries risks for humans doing the injections.
A protein compound that uses the pig’s immune system to provide the same effect as surgical castration is available for male pigs. By eliminating the need for surgical castration, the animal grows with all the inherent advantages of intact males. The vaccine is administered as a single dose at no earlier than nine weeks of age, followed by a second
dose at least four weeks after the first dose. Pigs should be sent for slaughter no earlier than four weeks after the second dose of the vaccine. Special care should be taken to avoid accidental self-injection during administration. Accidental self-injection could negatively affect reproduction physiology of both men and women. Therefore extreme caution should be exercised when administering the product.